Journal of fundamental and applied researches


2021. №1, pp. 68-74

Romanov Sergey I. - Tula State Pedagogical University named after L.N. Tolstoy, 300026, Russia, Tula, 125 Lenin Ave

The article deals with a special type of euphemisms-amulets, that is, linguocultural units endowed with the function of protection. There are two types of euphemisms-amulets from the point of view of relevance: obsolete and current units. Obsolete euphemisms- amulets have targets that are not recognized as dangerous by the modern linguistic and cultural community. Current euphemisms-amulets, although not always consciously, are used by representatives of the modern Russian linguistic and cultural community to protect against something bad. The paper establishes that the use of the euphemism-amulet is based on the transla- tion of the target's representation into another cultural code. The work reveals that the euphemisms-amulets are directed not to mitigate an unwanted nomination but how to replace it. An undesirable nomination is endowed with negative magical properties, which is why the linguocultural community imposes a ban on its use. A protective cultural function is superim- posed on the euphemism. The main pragmatic explanation for the use of the euphemism- amulet is the speaker's desire not to predict an encounter with an unwanted object, which is based on belief in the magical power of the word. The factors that determine the linguocultural specificity of euphemisms-amulets are revealed. The first factor is target selection. For the Russian linguocultural community, such targets include a totemic animal, evil forces representing another world, death. The second factor is the selection of nominations for the euphemistic function, which is determined by culturally marked background knowledge, ideas, and typical practices. The communicative- pragmatic platform for the use of euphemisms-amulets is the belief in the magical power of the word, in the fact that the use of the forbidden word can lead to negative consequences (in particular, to cause the appearance of something dangerous, undesirable). The work proves that the identified cultural factors are universal, based on universal archetypes: one's own / another's, permission / prohibition, life / death. At the same time, the fact of the appearance of the euphemism-amulet, the choice of its internal form is determined by national and cultural factors.

Key words: speech, semantics, pragmatics, synonymy, euphemism